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The Vanguard

The 5 Coolest Things On Earth This Week

Sam Worley
November 16, 2020

Scientists used gene therapy to regenerate damaged nerve fibers in the eye, formulated a way to 3D-print cartilage found in the knee and developed a blood test that indicates infection with antibiotic-resistant bacteria in less than one hour. This week鈥檚 coolest scientific achievements are written all over the body.

 

Eye Getty Images

 

What is it? Researchers at the University of Cambridge used gene therapy to , possibly pointing to a new way to treat glaucoma, which causes blindness.

Why does it matter? Glaucoma, which involves progressive damage to the optic nerve connecting the eyes to the brain, is 鈥渙ne of leading causes of blindness worldwide,鈥 said Veselina Petrova, first author of a new study . 鈥淭he causes of glaucoma are not completely understood, but there is currently a large focus on identifying new treatments by preventing nerve cells in the retina from dying, as well as trying to repair vision loss through the regeneration of diseased axons through the optic nerve.鈥

How does it work? Those axons, or nerve fibers that carry signals to neurons, were the focus here. Typically, in the adult central nervous system, axons don鈥檛 regenerate after being damaged. In this study, though, scientists found that if they tweaked the gene responsible for the production of a protein called protrudin, the nerve cells increased their ability to regenerate. This study was conducted in vitro and Petrova said that it was 鈥渋mportant to point out that these findings would need further research to see if they could be developed into effective treatments for humans.鈥

 

Meniscus Getty Images

 

What is it? Researchers at the Wake Forest Institute of Regenerative Medicine developed a way to 3D-print a 鈥渉ybrid tissue,鈥 made of cells and hydrogels, that for people with arthritis or injury.

Why does it matter? The type of cartilage that the hybrid tissue could replace is found in the meniscus, the knee鈥檚 鈥渟hock absorber,鈥 and a site that鈥檚 especially susceptible to injury 鈥 as many athletes know. According to the Wake Forest Institute, 鈥淒egeneration of the meniscus tissue affects millions of patients and arthroscopic partial meniscectomy is one of the most common orthopedic operations performed.鈥 There are few treatment options except surgery.

How does it work? Produced on a 3D bioprinter that itself took 14 years to develop, the replacement fibrocartilage is made of two special bio-inks and 鈥減rovides a cell-friendly microenvironment and structural integrity.鈥 As with all 3D printing, the machine lays down layer upon layer of the special inks into a new shape, which contains cells that could grow new tissues and organs. This study, published , was a proof-of-concept study, said Wake Forest Institute director Anthony Atala, that 鈥渉elps point our work in the right direction to someday be able to engineer this crucial tissue that is so important for patients.鈥

 

Hands holding components of the bacteria test

 

What is it? An interdisciplinary team from Brigham Young University developed a test that can in the blood in less than an hour.

Why does it matter? On a broad scale, antibiotic-resistant bacteria are . For patients, they鈥檙e a severe health threat that advances quickly in the body and can have lethal effects. Current testing methods can take up to 24 hours or longer, though, to return results. "Once you鈥檙e trying to diagnose the disease, the clock is ticking," said Aaron Hawkins, a professor of electrical and computer engineering and the co-author of a new study . 鈥淓very hour the disease is untreated, survivability drops by about 7%. You want to know what you鈥檙e fighting immediately so you can apply the right treatments.鈥

How does it work? As that journal name indicates, the method involves a chip. First researchers take a blood sample and spin it to isolate the bacteria, then DNA is extracted from the bacteria. The DNA is pushed through a fluid channel on a microchip, where a fluorescent signal will indicate the presence of antibiotic-resistant strains. Importantly, the chip can test for the presence of multiple resistant bacteria at once. The researchers plan to install the chip on a disposable, inexpensive cartridge that can be used in hospitals.

 

An illustration depicting the cycle of the self-irrigating soil

 

What is it? Engineers at the University of Texas at Austin created a new type of soil that can .

Why does it matter? The soil waters itself! But it鈥檚 not lazy gardeners it鈥檚 aimed at 鈥 it鈥檚 farmers in places where water itself might be scarce, and irrigation difficult. Guihua Yu, a professor of materials science and the co-author of a new paper , said, 鈥淓nabling free-standing agriculture in areas where it鈥檚 hard to build up irrigation and power systems is crucial to liberating crop farming from the complex water supply chain as resources become increasingly scarce.鈥

How does it work? The soil is made of gels that are super-absorbent. When the air is cool and humid 鈥 say, at night 鈥 the soil absorbs moisture, releasing it during the day when activated by warmer temperatures. In experiments in rooftop plots in Texas, Yu and team found that between 0.1 and 1 kilograms of the soil (depending on the crops) was sufficient to irrigate about a square meter of farmland. Farms might not be the only beneficiaries of this technology, though 鈥 researchers think it could be used to cool solar panels and data centers, and to expand access to drinking water.

 

Molly Shoichet leaning on a railing

 

What is it? Molly Shoichet, a chemical engineering professor at the University of Toronto, just won the Gerhard Herzberg Canada Gold Medal 鈥 the country鈥檚 top science prize 鈥 for her pioneering work in developing .

Why does it matter? The 3D hydrogels have a range of potential applications. For instance, one of the companies created out of Shoichet鈥檚 work was recently approved to begin human trials on an anesthetic for post-surgery pain that involves an injectable hydrogel; Shoichet noted that pain resulting from surgery is one driver of the opioid crisis. 鈥淓verything that we do is motivated by answering a question in biology, using our engineering and chemistry tools to answer those questions,鈥 she said.

How does it work? The broader significance of Shoichet鈥檚 work, though, relates to the ability to custom-design hydrogels to study specific problems 鈥 her lab has also used them to study drugs that could treat brain and lung cancer, as well as a rare lung disease. They allow cells to grow in a three-dimensional space just like they do in the body, which makes them useful, for instance, for drug development: 鈥淥ne of the challenges facing drug screening is that many of the drugs discovered work well in the lab, but not in people, and a possible explanation for this discrepancy is that these drugs are discovered in environments that do not reflect that of the body,鈥 Shoichet said.